# Torque Equation

**Torque equation:**** **Whenever armature carries current in presence of flux, conductor experiences force which gives rise to the electromagnetic torque. In this section we shall derive an expression for the electromagnetic torque Te developed in a d.c machine. Obviously Te will be developed both in motor and generator mode of operation. It may be noted that the direction of conductor currents reverses as we move from one pole to the other. This ensures unidirectional torque to be produced. The derivation of the torque expression is shown below.

Thus we see that the above equation is once again applicable both for motor and generator mode of operation. The direction of the electromagnetic torque, Te will be along the direction of rotation in case of motor operation and opposite to the direction of rotation in case of generator operation. When the machine runs steadily at a constant rpm then Te = Tload and Te = Tpm, respectively for motor and generator mode.

The emf and torque equations are extremely useful and should be remembered by heart.

**GNP and MNP:**