# Limits

**Limits**

Fig. explains the terminologies used in defining tolerance and limit. The zero line, shown in the figure, is the basic size or the nominal size. The definition of the terminologies is given below. For the convenience, shaft and hole are chosen to be two mating components.

Interrelationship between tolerances and limits

**Tolerance**

Tolerance is the difference between maximum and minimum dimensions of a component, ie, between upper limit and lower limit. Depending on the type of application, the permissible variation of dimension is set as per available standard grades.

Tolerance is of two types, bilateral and unilateral. When tolerance is present on both sides of nominal size, it is termed as bilateral; unilateral has tolerance only on one side. The Fig. shows the types of tolerance. 50^{0}_{-y}, 50^{ x}_{0} and 50^{ x}_{-y} is a typical example of specifying tolerance for a shaft of nominal diameter of 50mm. First two values denote unilateral tolerance and the third value denotes bilateral tolerance. Values of the tolerance are given as x and y respectively.

**Allowance**

It is the difference of dimension between two mating parts.

**Upper deviation**

It is the difference of dimension between the maximum possible size of the component and its nominal size.

**Lower deviation**

Similarly, it is the difference of dimension between the minimum possible size of the component and its nominal size.

**Fundamental deviation**

It defines the location of the tolerance zone with respect to the nominal size. For that matter, either of the deviations may be considered.