Human Values & Prof. Ethics-1

Introduction To The Values Theory

6 min read
Introduction to the Values Theory: When we think of our values, we think of what is important to us in our lives (e.g., security, independence, wisdom, success, kindness, pleasure). Each of us holds numerous values with varying degrees of importance. A particular value may be very important to one person, but unimportant to another. Consensus regarding the most useful way to conceptualize basic values has emerged gradually since the 1950’s. We can summarize the main features of the conception of basic values implicit in the writings of many theorists and researchers2 as follows: The Values Theory defines values as desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that serves as guiding principles in people’s lives. The five features above are common to all values. The crucial content aspect that distinguishes among values is the type of motivational goal they express. In order to coordinate with others in the pursuit of the goals that are important to them, groups and individuals represent these requirements cognitively (linguistically) as specific values about which they communicate. Ten motivationally distinct, broad and basic values are derived from three universal requirements of the human condition: needs of individuals as biological organisms, requisites of coordinated social interaction, and survival and welfare needs of groups. The ten basic values are intended to include all the core values recognized in cultures around the world. These ten values cover the distinct content categories found in earlier value theories, in value questionnaires from different cultures, and in religious and philosophical discussions of values. It is possible to classify virtually all the items found in lists of specific values from different cultures, into one of these ten motivationally distinct basic values. Schwartz [Schwartz, 1992, 2005a] details the derivations of the ten basic values. For example, a conformity value was derived from the prerequisites of interaction and of group survival. For interaction to proceed smoothly and for groups to maintain themselves, individuals must restrain impulses and inhibit actions that might hurt others. A self-direction value was derived from organismic needs for mastery and from the interaction requirements of autonomy and independence. Each of the ten basic values can be characterized by describing its central motivational goal: The comprehensiveness of any set of value orientations in covering the full range of motivational goals cannot be tested definitively. However, some evidence is consistent with the comprehensiveness of the ten basic values. Local researchers in 18 countries added to the survey value items of significance in their culture that they thought might be missing. These were assigned a priori to the existing basic values whose motivational goals they were expected to express. Analyses including the added value items revealed that these items correlated as expected with the core, marker items from the basic values to which they were assigned. They identified no additional basic values.

Human Education

4 min read
Human Education: Over the past decades since the inception of our modern school and collegiate system, educators, parents and students have realized there is an area of insufficiency in the system we have instituted. Although academic subjects may be thoughtfully planned and courses have been structured for the maximal suitability and benefit of our youth for career purposes, the topic of personal behavior and attitudes has not been given due importance or emphasis in the educational curriculum. The assumption has been that children imbibe all the values and ethics they need from their home lives, and that it is not the purview of the educational system to discuss these at all, especially since it was felt that such discussion may lead us into controversies among various communities. However, as a nation we now realize the error in this assumption and there is widespread recognition of the need to talk about values in our educational system as they pertain to every sphere of life. We can all acknowledge that there is no need to worry about cultural sensitivities or controversy if the most basic values are taught to our youth, as there are many values, which are admitted to be universal. Certain community or culturally based values may be relative, but there are attitudes and behaviors based in universal values that unquestionably contribute to the health, happiness and wealth of each person and the society as a whole.The evidence is all round us that the lack of such education results in selfishness and an uncaring attitude toward one’s fellowmen; at worst it results in violence, exploitation and utter disregard for life that no society can afford or it will forfeit its prosperity and peace, and be liable to descend into anarchy or fascism. Our wonderful country, simultaneously blessed and burdened with its extreme density of population and diversity of communal and religious sentiments, can only survive with a majority that is mentally and physically healthy, tolerant and liberal in outlook, as only such citizens will be able to care for and work for the prosperity of all. Aims of Education:

Right Understanding And Relationship

4 min read
Right understanding and Relationship: Our basic aspirations are happiness (mutual fulfillment) and prosperity (mutual prosperity). Happiness is ensured by the relationships with other human beings and prosperity is ensured by working on physical facilities. Relationship refers to the interpersonal relationships that a person builds in his/her life – at home, at the workplace and in society. Physical Facilities includes the physiological needs of individuals and indicates the necessities as well as the comforts of life. It means the feeling of having or being able to have more physical facilities than is needed. Today we are unable to have fulfilling relationships all the time: in family, outside family, and as a society – in the world at large. If there is a problem in relationship, we feel uneasy, it bothers us. Even if we are interacting with someone, and something we said or did offends them, it makes us uneasy; i.e. we want mutual fulfilment in relationship. Similarly, we want to feel prosperous, but end up working only for accumulation of wealth. We want to enrich nature, but are exploiting it, destroying it. But our natural acceptance is that we want to live in harmony with nature. The reason behind these problems is that we have to focus on one more aspect, i.e. right understanding. Right Understanding refers to higher order human skills – the need to learn and utilize our intelligence most effectively. In order to resolve the issues in human relationships, we need to understand them first, and this would come from ‘right understanding of relationship’. Similarly in order to be prosperous and to enrich nature, we need to have the ‘right understanding’. The ‘right understanding’ will enable us to work out our requirements for physical facilities and hence correctly distinguish the difference between wealth and prosperity. With nature as well, we need to understand the harmony in nature, and how we can complement this harmony.

Change In Attitudes, Interest And Interpersonal Relationships

5 min read
Change in Attitudes, Interest and Interpersonal Relationships: The adolescence brings a change in the habitual pattern of behavior, attitude and personality. There are marked changes in the adolescent’s social interest. Adolescents use new set of values in selection of friends and social grouping. The choice of friends depends more on similar interests and values. The peer group influences the attitudes, values and behavior more than the child’s own family. Interest in world affairs, politics and government often develops during this period. Some of the recreational interests during adolescence are sports and games, scholastic and extracurricular activities. There is genuine desire to help others and engaging in benevolent activities like collecting funds for a cause, arranging charity show etc. This also helps the adolescent to learn to adjust in variety of situations. It must be noted that along with these changes adolescence also brings in negative syndrome like being self-centered, showing off, emotional immaturity, stubbornness, irritability, unsatisfactory relationship with the family and other unattractive personality traits. Many adolescents are frequently confronted with a wide range of negative emotions that interfere with their ability to function effectively in academic, vocational and social settings. Emotions such as anger, depression and anxiety can vary in intensity from mild to severe and can be triggered by both acute and chronic factors. As adolescents struggle to cope with the challenges of identity development, learning to effectively respond to the emotional demands they encounter from day to day is essential to their success in school, work and social settings “Students can learn how and when to use rational processes to override their emotions, or to hold them in check Since adolescence is marked not only with sexual developments but emotional also, psychologists suggest that individuals going through this stage must be given proper care and education. Another feature is psychological weaning which reflects in their desire for independence from parents. There is development of specific abilities according to interests. They choose an idol for themselves and hero worship is common. Idols are selected which appeal them most such as a sports-person. With puberty, powerful increase in instinctual demands, impulsiveness and sexual arousal can be witnessed. Daydreaming helps them to actualize all wishes. They develop an interest towards natural beauty, arts, music, poetry, literature etc. It would not be wrong if we say that an adolescent is selfish for love as he is ready and willing to sacrifice every thing for the person whom he loves. It is mostly seen why teenage girls leave their family for sake of lover. It is not entirely their fault but this age is characterized by complete inclination. Pressure from outside may lead them to seclusion when they want to spend time all alone. Since they oscillate between extremes – on one side they have spirit of independence and on the other want of emotional security.

Sex Interest And Sex Behavior

7 min read
Sex Interest and Sex Behavior: To master the important developmental tasks of forming new and more mature relationships with members of the opposite sex and of playing the approved role for one’s sex, the young adolescent must acquire more complete and more mature concepts of sex than he had as a child. The motivation to do so comes partly from his interest in sex. With the development of the sexual capacities at the time of puberty comes a change in the form of interest that adolescents take in members of the opposite sex. No longer are boys and girls primarily interested in physical differences, although this interest never completely vanishes. The new interest that develops during the early part of adolescence is romantic in nature. This is accompanied by a strong desire to win the approval of members of the opposite sex. Knowledge about sex is acquired as a result of the curiosity the individual has about sex. This curiosity, which became pronounced at puberty, provided the individual has been able to get the information he wishes to satisfy his curiosity. There is still, however, a lively interest in sex, though this is not likely to preoccupy the time and interest of young adolescents as much as it did earlier, during the puberty period. Pattern of Sex Interests: Interest in members of the opposite sex heterosexuality – follows a predictable pattern, with variations in ages at which the adolescent reaches different stages in this pattern partly because of differences in age of sexual maturing and partly because of differences in opportunities to develop this interest. Interest in members of the opposite sex is also markedly influenced by patterns of interest among the adolescent’s friends. Studies of large groups of adolescents have shown what the predictable pattern of heterosexuality is. In the transition from aversion toward members of the opposite sex, characteristic of puberty, to falling in love with members of the opposite sex, it is quite usual for both boys and girls to center their affections first on a member of their own sex, older than they, who has qualities they admire, and then, later, on a member of the opposite sex who is distinctly older then they. When the attachment is for a person whom the adolescent knows and has personal contacts with, it is usually called a “crush”, when the attachment is for a person not known personally but admired from afar, it is generally referred to as “here worshiping”. However, this distinction is worshiping”. However, this distinction is not always made, and the latter attachment is then also called a “crush”. The object of the adolescent’s crush is a person who embodies the qualities the adolescent admires. This person becomes the focal point of the adolescent’s admiration and love. Whether it is a teacher, a camp counselor, a sports star, an actor or actress, a crooner, or even an older relative or friend of the family, there is a strong desire on the adolescent’s part to imitate this individual. If the object of affection is a person known to the adolescent, there is added to the desire to imitate a strong desire to be with the loved person, to do everything possible to win the favor and attention of that person, and to be constantly thinking and talking about the loved one. Crushes and hero-worshiping generally reach their peak around fourteen years of age, after which there is a rapid decline in interest in these love objects. There is no evidence that crushes are a barrier to later heterosexual adjustments. On the other hand, there is evidence that crushes may prove to be a healthy learning experience for the young adolescent. As Rybak has explained, “The main function of the adult in the crush or hero-worship relationship is to help the young person to learn from this experience and then to gradually grow away from it into a more mature relationship”. Approved Sex Roles:

Adolescence And Emotions

4 min read
Adolescence and Emotions: The term “ adolescence” is used today, it has a broader meaning and includes mental, emotional, and social as well as physical maturity. Adolescence is a time when the individual is expected to prepare for adulthood by replacing childish attitudes and behaviour patterns with those of an adult type. Early adolescence begins when the individual become sexually mature. For average girl of today, early adolescence begins at thirteen years and, for boys, approximately a later. The dividing line between early and late adolescence is placed around seventeen years. The young adolescence status in our society is vague and confused. At one time, he is treated as a child, and when acts like a child, he is reproved and told to act his age. When he attempts to act like an adult, he is often accused of being “ too big for his britches”. This ambiguous status presents a dilemma for the young teenagers. Late adolescence, which is part of the adolescent period, is recognized as beginning around seventeen years of age. There are certain attitudes and patterns of behavior, which are normally found among older adolescents that make them different from young adolescents- the “ teen-agers”. These characteristics are increased stability, changes in methods of meeting problems, knowledge of decreased adult concern, increased emotional calm, increased realism, and interest in symbols of maturity. Normally the generally heightened emotionality of early adolescence should wane as the adolescent is given more independence and is less protected by adults. In its place then comes emotional calm. While not all the moodiness, temper outbursts, and irrational worries and anxieties of early adolescence will automatically end when the individual is less restricted, they should be replaced gradually by less predisposition to become emotionally disturbed and by greater control over the overt expressions of the emotions. Storm and Stress:

The Concept Of Human Rights

6 min read
The Concept of Human Rights: Human beings are rational beings. They by virtue of their being human possess certain basic and inalienable rights, which are commonly known as human rights. Since these rights belong to them because of their very existence, they become operative with their birth. Human rights, being the birthrights are therefore, inherent in all the individuals irrespective of their caste, creed, religion, sex and nationality. These rights are essential for all the individuals as they are consonant with their freedom and dignity and are conductive to physical, moral, social and spiritual welfare. They are also necessary, as they provide suitable conditions for the material and moral uplift of the people. Because of their immense significance to human beings, human rights are also sometimes referred to fundamental rights, basic rights, inherent rights, natural rights and birthrights. It is difficult to define the expression human rights, mainly because of differences in cultural background, legal systems, ideology and economic and social and political conditions of different societies or states. However it can be said that the ideal of human rights is bound up with the ideal of human dignity. Thus, all those rights, which are essential for the maintenance of human dignity, may be called human rights. The world conference on Human rights held in 1993 in Vienna stated in the Declaration that all human rights derive from the dignity and worth inherent in the human person, and the human person is the central subject of human rights and fundamental freedoms. D.K.Basu defines human rights as those minimum rights, which every individual must have against the state or other public authority by virtue of his being a member of human family irrespective of any other consideration. Human rights are, therefore based on elementary human needs as imperatives. Some of these human needs are elemental for sheer physical survival and health. Others are elemental for psychic's survival and health. Thus, the human rights can be perceived and enumerated. Rights being immunities denote that there is a guarantee that certain things cannot or ought not to be done to a person against his will. According to this concept, human beings, by virtue of their humanity, ought to be protected against unjust and degrading treatment. In other words, human rights are exemptions from the operation of arbitrary power. An individual can seek human rights only in an organized community. i.e, a state or in other words, where the civil social order exists. No one can imagine to invoke them in a state of anarchy where there is hardly any just power to which a citizen can appeal against the violations of rights. Thus the principle of the protection of human rights is derived from the concept of man as a person and his relationship with an organized society which cannot be separated from universal human nature. Human rights being essential for all-round development of the personality of the individuals in the society, be necessarily protected and be made available to all the individuals. The need for the protection has arisen because of inevitable increase in the control over men's action by the Governments which by no means can be regarded as derivable. The consciousness on the part of the human beings as to their rights has also necessitated the protection by the states. It has been realized that the functions of all the laws whether they are the rules of municipal law or that of international law should be to protect them in the interest of the humanity.

Human Relationships

4 min read
Human Relationships: Justice is the recognition of values (the definite feelings) in relationship, their fulfilment, the right evaluation of the fulfilment resulting in mutual happiness. Justice concerns itself with the proper ordering of things and people within a society. There are four elements: Recognition of values, fulfilment, evaluation and mutual happiness ensured. When all the four are ensured, justice is ensured. Mutual fulfilment is the hallmark of justice. And justice is essential in all relationships. Justice starts from family and slowly expands to the world family. The child gets the understanding of justice in the family. With this understanding, he goes out in the society and interacts with people. If the understanding of justice is ensured in the family, there will be justice in all the interactions we have in the world at large. If we do not understand the values in relationships, we are governed by our petty prejudices and conditionings. We may treat people as high or low based on their body (particular caste, or sex or race or tribe), on the basis of wealth one possesses or the belief systems that one follows. All this is source of injustice and leads to fragmented society while our natural acceptance is for an undivided society and universal human order. Having explored the harmony in the human beings, we are able to explore the harmony in the family. This enables us to understand the harmony at the level of society and nature/existence. And this is the way, the harmony in our living grows. We slowly get the competence to live in harmony with all human beings.

Need And Benefit Of Exercise And Meditation For Students

6 min read
Need and Benefit of Exercise and Meditation for Students: Man is a harmonious and marvelous combination of body, life force and mind that has evolved over countless millennia to a high level of efficiency. Although the acquisition of knowledge and skills for living are the objective in student life, this is possible only if the physical body is maintained in a healthy condition. Also, one must have some degree of knowledge about the structure and working of the body and practice appropriate physical exercise daily, so as to remain healthy and alert. A meaningful education should include meditation as a component. It is an historical fact that the great saints and sages attained their revelations only through deep and sustained meditation. Through the practice of meditation the mind becomes subtle, penetrating and creative. Meditation should not be thought of as exotic and difficult; it is similar to other skills in life by which one can enjoy many benefits with regular practice. It helps to convert tension to peace, illness to health, dullness to sharpness and restores energy to a sluggish mind and body. Group meditations are useful for mutual motivation and to benefit from group energy, but essentially, first and last, meditation is a ‘solo inward journey’. Meditation is a tool for mental subtlety and in order to be fruitful it must be supplemented with self-introspection methods whereby one critically analyses his own character and deeds. Through the detachment and awareness one gets by meditation, it is possible to plan and effect the necessary corrections in one’s life and thoughts. After all, an individual’s progress in life is nothing but a series of modifications and corrections. Meditation frees one from unthinking, automatic behavior and the compulsion to follow only the temptations of habit and the senses, disregarding consequential results. Physical Exercise: